Are Collective Bargaining Agreement
In the United States, the National Labor Relations Act (1935) covers most collective agreements in the private sector. The Act makes it illegal for employers to discriminate, spy, harass or terminate workers because of their union membership, or to retaliate against them because they participate in campaigns or other “concerted activities”, form company unions or refuse to negotiate collective agreements with the union representing their employees. It is also illegal to require any employee to join a union as a condition of employment.  Trade unions are also able to guarantee safe working conditions and fair remuneration for their work. Other collective agreements contain rules on the relationship between an employer and an individual worker. Such agreements may be concluded, both at the central level, by the parties described above, and at the local level, between a given employer and the local trade union represented in the enterprise. It is customary for a central agreement on the working and employment conditions of each employee to be supplemented by local agreements. This is the standard procedure among member companies of the Swedish Industrial Employers` Association. Although the collective agreement itself is not applicable, many of the negotiated conditions relate to wages, conditions, leave, pensions, etc. These conditions are included in an employee`s employment contract (whether or not the worker is a member of the union); and the employment contract is of course applicable. If the new conditions are not acceptable to individuals, they may contradict their employer; but if the majority of workers have agreed, the company will be able to dismiss the plaintiffs, normally with impunity. A collective agreement (CBA) is a written legal contract between an employer and a union representing workers.
The KNA is the result of a broad negotiation process between the parties on issues such as wages, working time and working conditions. Collective agreements are signed for certain periods, usually between two and four years. A collective agreement is binding both for the employers` organisation and its members, on the one hand, and for the trade union and its members, on the other. In addition, in practice, if not theoretically, a collective agreement binds non-unionized and unionized workers belonging to unions other than the union that is part of the agreement, provided that (i) the worker works with tasks covered by the contract and (ii) the union to which the worker belongs, he is not bound by another collective agreement with the employer. In June 2007, the Supreme Court of Canada considered at length the reasons for considering collective bargaining a human right. In Facilities Subsector Bargaining Association vs. British Columbia, the Court found that the right to collective bargaining is recognized by international human rights conventions. Article 23 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights makes the ability to organize trade unions a fundamental human right.
 Point 2(a) of the International Labour Organisation`s Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work defines “freedom of association and the effective recognition of the right to collective bargaining” as an essential right of workers.  The Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention, 1948 (C087) and several other conventions explicitly protect collective bargaining through the creation of international labour standards that prevent countries from violating workers` right to collective and trade union bargaining.  In 1931, the Supreme Court was appointed in texas &N.O.R. .